The New South Wales Murray catchment is located in Southern NSW, forming part of the Murray Darling Basin. The NSW Murray Catchment is bounded by the Murray River to the south, the Murrumbidgee River catchment divide to the north and the Australian Alps to the east, spanning an area of 35,170 square kilometres and encompassing a range of environments, from the steep alpine slopes in the east, through rolling valleys and foot slopes and into the vast native grasslands, rangelands and riverine floodplains to the west. Land and water resources within the Murray catchment support diverse agricultural enterprises, including dryland and irrigated cropping, grazing, forestry and horticulture.

The soils of the area are similarly diverse, ranging from alpine peats and skeletal mountain scree slopes, through duplex soils of the rolling valleys and moving further westward onto the sands, silts and clays of the wide alluvial plains. At the far west of the region, Mallee soils and dune systems are encountered.

Climate in the NSW Murray Catchment is Mediterranean with hot dry summers and cool winters with frosts being common. Annual rainfall is winter dominant and ranges from 350mm in the west to over 1000mm in the east. Variability in rainfall from year to year is high.